このシリーズでは、私が1994年に執筆した統一神学大学院(Unification Theological Seminary)の神学課程修士論文(Divinity Thesis)を日英二か国語で掲載している。


 第二の基礎的概念は、もっと説明するのが難しいものである。それは存在の根拠、あるいは実在の内的本質といったもの、と表現することができるであろう。たとえば中国の「道(タオ)」、朱子学派の「理」(英語では、しばしば reason と訳される)、「理」と同義で用いられるときの「心」(英語では、heart もしくは mind )、仏教における「仏性」の概念、そして神道における最も哲学的な意味での「神」という語などである。このような存在に対する宗教行為は、この存在の根拠あるいは実在の本質と、なんらかの形で合一あるいは一致を為そうという、求道者側からの試みなのである。






VII. Evaluation of the Mukyokai Movement.(Cont.)

The second basic conception of the divine is more difficult to explain. It might be described as the ground of being or the inner essence of reality. Examples are the Chinese tao; the neo-Confucian li, often translated as reason, and hsin, heart or mind, when identified with li; the Buddhist concept of the Buddha-nature; and the Shinto term kami in its most philosophical interpretation. Religious action toward these entities is the attempt on the part of the communicant to attain some form of union or identity with this ground of being or essence of reality.
The two conceptions of the divine should not be thought of as competing. They are both to be found in almost every sect and they were not felt to be in any way mutually exclusive. Any potential conflict was resolved by a theory of levels of truth, the second conception of the divine being considered perhaps more profound. Only some of the more extreme forms of Zen, however, radically rejected deities of the first type.(13)
If the Mukyokai is a synthesis of Zen and Christianity, it clearly represents the second type of religious tradition in Japan. Unfortunately, comparing to the overwhelming influence of the first type conception of the divine, the second type had only a limited influence among the upper classes.(14) Zen Buddhism was basically an elitistic religion which seeks to attain unity with the divine through private religious exercise or experiences, through withdrawal from the world. From this viewpoint, the Mukyokai was destined to remain minority in Japanese religious sphere.
Consequently, religious action for the majority of Japanese took primarily the form of fulfilling one’s obligations in the world. Ritual, prayer or meditation all took second place to the primary ethical obligations. What concretely tended to be most stressed was obligation to political superiors and obligation to family.(15)
The ultimate development of this “Japanese religion” was the emperor worship, in which loyalty to the emperor could override other religious and secular commitments.(16) The high regard for the emperor when linked to this identification of loyalty and filial piety has some very interesting implications for the concept of the state. God, emperor, lord, and father tend to be made into equivalents. The whole nation is a single family. The emperor is “divine,” he is “lord” and he is “father” of the national family. The people are worshippers, retainers, and children.
What has been described above is one aspect of what is meant by kokutai (national polity). It is a concept of the state in which religious, political and familistic ideas are indissolubly merged. Thus the emperor becomes the center of the national religion and the obligation to make return for his benevolence takes precedence over all other obligations.(17)

(13)Ibid., p.61.
(14)Ibid., p.74.
(15)Ibid., p.79.
(16)Ibid., p.88.
(17)Ibid., p.103-4.

カテゴリー: 統一神学大学院修士論文シリーズ パーマリンク